Microhabitat Selection and Singing Behavior Patterns of Male House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) in Urban Parks in a Heavily Urbanized Landscape in the Western U.S.


Akaike information criterion (AIC)
Statistical model fit measure that quantifies the relative goodness-of-fit of various previously derived statistical models, given a sample of data. The driving idea behind the AIC is to examine the complexity of the model together with goodness of its fit to the sample data, and to produce a measure which balances between the two. For more information, visit
ANOVA (analysis of variance)
Statistical method that yields values that can be tested to determine whether a significant relation exists between variables.
Arcsin transformation
Statistical technique whereby each observation or raw value of data is replaced by the arcsin(SQRT) of itself.
One of a group of yellow, orange, and red lipid-soluble pigments found in all chloroplasts, cyanobacteria, and some bacteria and fungi, and chromoplasts of higher plants (Penguin Dictionary of Biology).
Individuals that are members of the same species.
Diameter at breast height (dbh)
Tree diameter measured at 4.5 feet above the forest floor on the uphill side of the tree.
Edge species
Species adapted to habitat edges, such as those abutting forests. They are often generalist species that also adapt well to human-dominated environments.
The components derived from the data that represent the variation in the original data accounted for by each new component or axis (Oxford Dictionary of Ecology). For more information, visit
General linear model (GLM)
A statistical linear model that incorporates a number of different statistical analyses, such as, ANOVA, ANCOVA, MANOVA, linear regression, t-test, etc.
Logarithmic transformation
Statistical technique whereby each observation or raw value of data is replaced by the log (base 10) of itself.
Logistic regression
A statistical method used to predict a discrete outcome, such as group membership, from a set of variables that may be continuous, discrete, dichotomous, or a mix of any of these.
Low frequency
The lower frequency bound of a song (Charif, R.A., Clark, C.W. & Fisrup, K.M. (2004). Raven 1.2 User's Manual. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology.).
Low abundant species
Species with low local abundances.
Interior species
Species adapted to habitat interiors, such as interiors of forests.
Principal component analysis (PCA)
A multivariate analysis technique that orders a set of objects in any number of dimensions (fewer is better). It involves Eigen analysis of a correlation matrix.
A line used in ecological surveys to provide a means of measuring and representing graphically the distribution of organisms (Oxford Dictionary of Ecology).
Varimax raw transformation
This is a rotational strategy in Principal Component Analysis aimed at obtaining a clear pattern of loadings, that is, factors that are somehow clearly marked by high loadings for some variables and low loadings for others (StatSoft, Inc. (2005). STATISTICA, version 7.1.